IB Philosophy  2

IB Year 2


Important Dates 

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This section will include any reference needed for the Year 2 class

Course description and aims The philosophy course provides an opportunity for students to engage with some of the world’s most interesting and influential thinkers. It also develops highly transferable skills such as the ability to formulate arguments clearly, to make reasoned judgments, and to evaluate highly complex and multifaceted issues. The emphasis of the DP philosophy course is on “doing philosophy”, that is, on actively engaging students in philosophical activity. The course is focused on stimulating students’ intellectual curiosity and encouraging them to examine both their own perspectives and those of others. Students are challenged to develop their own philosophical voice and to grow into independent thinkers. They develop their skills through the study of philosophical themes and the close reading of a philosophical text. They also learn to apply their philosophical knowledge and skills to real-life situations and to explore how non-philosophical material can be treated in a philosophical way. HL students also engage in a deeper exploration of the nature of philosophy itself. Teachers explicitly teach thinking and research skills such as comprehension, text analysis, transfer, and use of primary sources

Doing Philosophy
Preliminary Timeline for IA

Additional sources to be used as extracts

Core theme

Arendt, H. 1999. The Human Condition. University of Chicago Press.

Aristotle. 1987. De Anima (On the Soul). London, UK. Penguin.

Camus, A. 2005. The Myth of Sisyphus. London, UK. Penguin.

Churchland, P. 1995. The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. Cambridge, MA, USA. MIT Press.

De Beauvoir, S. 1997. The Second Sex. London, UK. Random House.

Dreyfus, H. What Computers Still Can’t Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason. Cambridge, MA, USA. MIT Press.

Hume, D. “Of Personal Identity” in A Treatise of Human Nature: Book 1, Part 4. 1985. London, UK Penguin.

Locke, J. 2008. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (particularly chapter 28 “Identity and Diversity”). Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Midgley, M. 2002. Beast and Man. London, UK. Routledge.

Nagel, T. 2012. Mortal Questions. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Nishitani, K. 1992. Religion and Nothingness. University of California Press.

Nussbaum, M. 2007. Frontiers of Justice (particularly chapter 6 “Beyond Compassion and Humanity: Justice for Non-Human Animals”). Harvard University Press.

Ryle, G. 1963. The Concept of Mind. London, UK. Penguin.

Sartre, JP. 2007. Existentialism is a Humanism. London, UK. Yale University Press.

Shoemaker, S and Swinburne, R. 1984. Personal Identity: Great Debates in Philosophy. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Siderits, M (Ed). 2013. Self, No Self?: Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Taylor, C. 1992. Sources of the Self: the Making of the Modern Identity. Harvard University Press.

Wei-ming, T. 1985. Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation. State University of New York Press.


Adorno, T, Benjamin, W, Bloch, E, Brecht, B and Lukacs, G, 2007. Aesthetics and Politics. Verso.

Aristotle. 1996. Poetics. London, UK. Penguin.

Blackburn, S. 1998. Ruling Passions. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Bourdieu, P. 1984. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London, UK. Routledge.

Carlson, A. 2002. Aesthetics and the Environment: The Appreciation of Nature, Art and Architecture. London, UK. Routledge.

Collingwood, RG. 1968. Principles of Art. New York, NY, USA. Oxford University Press.

Danto, A. 2013. What Art Is: 100 Works, 100 Years. Yale University Press.

Danto, A. 2003. The Abuse of Beauty. Open Court Publishing.

Gombrich, EH. 2002. Art and Illusion. Phaidon Press Ltd.

Hume, D. 2006. “Of the Standard of Taste” in Essays: Moral, Political and Literary. New York, NY, USA. Cosimo.

Janaway, C. 2005. Reading Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art: Selected Texts with Interactive Commentary. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Kant, I. 2008. The Critique of Judgment. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Plato. 2007. Republic. London, UK. Penguin.

Schopenhauer, A. 2010. The Essential Schopenhauer: Key Selections from the World as Will and Representation and Other Works. HarperPerennial.

Scruton, R. 1997. The Aesthetics of Music. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Tolstoy, L. 1995. What is Art? London, UK. Penguin.

Warburton, N. 2002. The Art Question. London, UK. Routledge.

Wollheim, R. 1980. Art and its Objects. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.


Adorno, T. 2013. Against Epistemology. Polity Press.

Ayer, AJ. 1990. The Problem of Knowledge. London, UK. Penguin.

Berkeley, G. 2009. Principles of Human Knowledge and Three Dialogues. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Bernecker, S (Ed). 2005. Reading Epistemology: Selected Texts with Interactive Commentary. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Dancy, J (Ed). 1988. Perceptual Knowledge. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Descartes, R. 2010. Meditations. London, UK. Penguin.

Foucault, M. 1988. Power/ Knowledge. New York, UK. Random House.

Gadamer, HG. 2004. Truth and Method. London, UK. Continuum.

Ganeri, J. 2009. Philosophy in Classical India: The Proper Work of Reason. New York, NY, USA. Routledge.

Grayling, AC. 2009. Scepticism and the Possibility of Knowledge. London, UK. Continuum.

Habermas, J. 1986. Knowledge and Human Interests. Polity Press.

Horkheimer, M. 2004. Eclipse of Reason. London, UK. Continuum.

Hume, D. 2008. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. 2007. Critique of Pure Reason. London, UK. Penguin.

Locke, J. 2008. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Matilal, BK. 1991. Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Moore, GE. 2010. Philosophical Papers (particularly “Four Forms of Skepticism”, “Proof of an External World” and “Certainty”). London, UK. Routledge.

Putnam, H. 1981. Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Russell, B. 2001. Problems of Philosophy. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Searle, J. 1983. Intentionality. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Sosa, E and Kim, J (Eds). 1999. Epistemology: An Anthology. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Wittgenstein, L. 1969. On Certainty. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.


Anscombe, GEM. 2000. Intention. Harvard University Press.

Aristotle. 2004. The Nichomachean Ethics. London, UK. Penguin.

Calarco, M and Atterton, P. 2003. The Continental Ethics Reader. New York, NY, USA. Routledge.

Crisp, R (Ed). 1997. Virtue Ethics: Oxford Readings in Philosophy. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Foot, P. 2003. Natural Goodness. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Foot, P. 2002. Virtue and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Glover, J. 1990. Causing Death and Saving Lives: The Moral Problems of Abortion, Infanticide, Suicide, Euthanasia, Capital Punishment, War and Other Life-or-death Choices. London, UK. Penguin.

Gyatso, T. 1999. Ancient Wisdom, Modern World: Ethics for a New Millennium. London, UK. Hachette.

Hume, D. 2006. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Hume, D. 1985. Treatise on Human Nature. London, UK. Penguin.

Husthouse, R. 2000. Ethics, Humans and Other Animals: An Introduction with Readings. London, UK. Routledge.

Kamm, FM. 2008. Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York, NY, USA. Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. 1998. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Korsgaard, C. 1996. Creating the Kingdom of Ends. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

MacIntyre, A. 2007. After Virtue. University of Notre Dame Press.

Mackie, J. 1990. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. London, UK. Penguin.

Mill, JS and Bentham, J. 2000. Utilitarianism and Other Essays. London, UK. Penguin.

Rhys Davids, T. 2007. Dialogues of the Buddha: The Digha-Nikaya. Forgotten Books.

Singer, P. 1993. Practical Ethics. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Williams, B. 2011. “Relativism and Reflection” in Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. London, UK. Routledge.

Philosophy and contemporary society

Arendt, H. 1999. The Human Condition. University of Chicago Press.

Berlin, I. 2002. Liberty. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Borgmann, A. 1984. Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life. University of Chicago Press.

Dworkin, R. 2013. Taking Rights Seriously. Bloomsbury Academic.

Gutmann, A and Appiah, KA. 1998. Color Conscious. Princeton, NJ, USA. Princeton University Press.

Heidegger, M. 1977. The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. HarperPerennial.

Kaplan, D. 2004. Readings in the Philosophy of Technology. Plymouth, UK. Rowman and Littlefield.

Kymlicka, W. 2006. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Locke, J. “A Letter Concerning Toleration” in Richard Vernon (Ed). 2010. Locke on Toleration. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Marcuse, H. 2002. One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. London, UK. Routledge.

Mill, JS. 2008. On Liberty and Other Essays. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Olsen, J et al. 2008. New Waves in Philosophy of Technology. New York, NY, USA. Palgrave MacMillan.

Scharff, R and Dusek, V (Eds). 2003. Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition—An Anthology. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Searle, J. 1996. The Construction of Social Reality. London, UK. Penguin.

Silverstone, R. 2006. Media and Morality: On the Rise of the Mediapolis. Polity Press.

Taylor, C. 2004. Modern Social Imaginaries. Duke University Press.

Taylor, C. 2007. A Secular Age. Harvard University Press.

Philosophy of religion

Al-Ghazali. 2000. The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Brigham Young University Press.

Alston, W. 1993. Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Ithaca, NY, USA. Cornell University Press.

Anselm. 1973. The Prayers and Meditations of St. Anselm with the Proslogion. London, UK. Penguin.

Aquinas, T. 2008. Selected Philosophical Writings. Oxford, USA. Oxford University Press.

Ayer, AJ. 2002. Language, Truth, and Logic. Dover Publications.

Hick, J. 1989. Philosophy of Religion. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA. Prentice-Hall.

Hume, D. 2008. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Hume, D. 2008. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Kant, I. 1998. Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason And Other Writings. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Lane Craig, W. 2000. The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Lepoidevin, R. 1996. Arguing for Atheism. London, UK. Routledge.

Mackie, JL. 1982. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Maimonides, M. 2000. The Guide for the Perplexed. Dover Publications.

Mitchell, B. 1971. The Philosophy of Religion. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Peterson, M et al. 2001. Philosophy of Religion: Selected Readings. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Rowe, W. “The Cosmological Argument” in Rowe, W. 2006. The Philosophy of Religion: An Introduction. Belmont, CA, USA. Wadsworth.

Swinburne, R. 2004. The Existence of God. Oxford, UK. Clarendon Press.

Van Inwagen, P. “Necessary Being: The Ontological Argument” in Stump and Murray (Eds). 1999. Philosophy of Religion: The Big Questions. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Wittgenstein, L. 2009. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Philosophy of science

Al-Khalili, J. 2012. Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science. London, UK. Penguin.

Ayer, AJ. 2002. Language, Truth, and Logic. Dover Publications.

Chalmers, A. 2013. What is This Thing Called Science? Fourth Edition. Maidenhead, UK. Open University Press.

Churchland, P. 1985. Images of Science: Scientific Realism versus Constructive Empiricism. University of Chicago Press.

Feyerabend, P. 2010. Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. Verso.

Hempel, C. 1970. Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science. Free Press.

Kitcher, P. 2003. Science, Truth and Democracy. New York, NY, USA. Oxford University Press.

Kuhn, T. 2012. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press.

Ladyman, J. 2001. Understanding Philosophy of Science. London, UK. Routledge.

Lakatos, I. 1980. Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1: The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Popper, K. 2002. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London, UK. Routledge.

Popper, K. 2002. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. London, UK. Routledge.

Quine, W. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” in Quine, W. 1961. From a Logical Point of View: Nine Logico-Philosophical Essays. Harvard University Press.

Sassower, R. 1993. Knowledge Without Expertise: On the Status of Scientists. State University of New York Press, NY, USA.

Searle, J. 1985. Minds, Brains and Science. Harvard University Press.

Searle, Dennett et al. 2009. Neuroscience and Philosophy: Brain, Mind, and Language. New York, NY, USA. Columbia University Press.

Sheldrake, R. 2012. The Science Delusion. Coronet.

Xuan Thuan, T and Ricard, M. 2004. The Quantum and the Lotus: A Journey to the Frontiers Where Science and Buddhism Meet. New York:, NY. USA. Three Rivers Press.

Political philosophy

Arendt, H. 2006. “What is Authority?” in Between Past and Future. London, UK. Penguin.

Aristotle. 2000. The Politics. London, UK. Penguin.

De Montesquieu, C. 1989. The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

De Tocqueville, A. 2003. Democracy in America. London, UK. Penguin.

Dworkin, R. 2013. Taking Rights Seriously. Bloomsbury Academic.

Feinberg, J. 1980. Rights, Justice and the Bounds of Liberty. Princeton, NJ, USA. Princeton University Press

Hegel, G. 1979. “Lordship and Bondage” in Phenomenology of Spirit. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Hobbes, T. 2008. Leviathan. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Hume, D. 1985. A Treatise of Human Nature (Book 3). London, UK. Penguin.

Kant, I. 1991. Kant: Political Writings. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Locke, J. 1988. Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.

Mill, JS. 2008. On Liberty and Other Essays. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Nozick, R. 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford, UK. Blackwell.

Plato. 2007. The Republic. London, UK. Penguin.

Plato. 2002. Five Dialogues (Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Meno, Phaedo). Hackett.

Rawls, J. 1999. A Theory of Justice. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Rousseau, JJ. 2008. The Social Contract. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Rousseau, RR. 1984. A Discourse on Inequality. London, UK. Penguin.

Sandel, M. 2010. Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? New York, NY, USA. Penguin.

Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Singer, P. 1995. Animal Liberation. Pimlico.

Non-Western Philosophy

Al-Khalili, J. 2012. Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science. Penguin.

Eze, EC (Ed). 1997. African Philosophy: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. Oxford, UK. Wiley Blackwell.

Ganeri, J. 2001. Philosophy in Classical India: The Proper Work of Reason. Routledge.

Harrison, V. 2012. Eastern Philosophy: The Basics. Routledge.

Ivanhoe, PJ and van Norden, B (Eds). 2005. Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. Hackett.

King, R. 1999. Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Buddhist and Hindu Thought. Edinburgh, UK. Edinburgh University Press.

Matilal, BK. 1991. Perception: An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge. Clarendon Paperbacks.

Matilal, BM. 1986. Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues. Motilal Banarsidass.

Soroush, A. 2000. Reason, Freedom, and Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings of Abdolkarim Soroush. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.

Wei-Ming, T. 1985. Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation. SUNY